In a surprise decision, a judge has upheld the law that will require Pennsylvania voters to show identification in order to vote. After the state testified that they had no cases of voters casting a ballot impersonating someone else, the law was upheld. After the bill's author proclaimed that voter ID will help the Republican candidate win Pennsylvania for President, the judge still found that the law was constitutional. The plaintiffs have pledged that they will appeal. Academic researchers have estimated that 2% of the potential voters may not have identification. Those who do not have ID will cast a provisional ballot, and will have to return in six days with the ID. Democrats are worried that low income and homeless people would not have ID and then could not vote. The basis for all ID is a birth certificate, and many states take four to six months to return a birth certificate. Some states it costs as much as $60 to purchase a birth certificate.