Rural Poverty Often Overlooked

by Will Henry Hartsock

        When we think of a homeless person, we often see in our mind's eye a person pushing a shopping cart with all their earthly possessions, along a city street. Also, we view this person as being dependent upon alcohol, drugs, or being in need of mental health care, or a combination of all three. I don't know the statistics, but only speak from my own personal experience. In January of 1998, I abruptly became homeless, due to my wife forcing me to leave our home.

        In respecting her wishes, I found myself watching the snow fly all around my head, as I left our house, with $20 dollars in my pocket . . . then the real shock. Brown County Ohio has no homeless shelter. I called the local social services director. I explained that I worked part-time as an ethnomusicologist at a local rural college, but had not started the spring semester yet. I told him I had no money nor did I have a place to sleep, except in my old car. His reply was, "I do not consider you homeless . . ." These words stung in my ears as I politely stammered, "Well, thank you sir," and hung up the phone.

        After exhausting all my leads, I found a shelter out in Blue Creek, Ohio, near Portsmouth. A rather long way to drive just to sleep in a warm place. After having stayed there for a month, I came to a gentle realization; these folks with me were not drinking, or using drugs, and had no major mental problems. They were broken and beaten down spiritually. They were young others with little children. They were men who had skills in plumbing, carpentry, etc., hard-working men who had become displaced workers for one reason or the other.

        All of these people had known abuse of the physical and emotional type in past relationships. They all spoke of the sadness of the breakup of their families.

I discovered that being in this environment, and being an active participant and not a casual observer, has given me some valuable insights into the realities of rural homelessness.

        Some of the experts have concluded there are no rural homeless people. That is a sad untruth. The folks I met at Blue Creek shared with me their life stories. They have dreams and aspirations of good jobs and security. They spoke of well-rounded relationships. Their human dignity spoke of spiritual fulfillment and of their desire to share their lives' experiences with others. "When you're on the bottom there's nowhere to go but up," one lady related to me. Yes, being there with my new friends at Blue Creek, sharing the household cheer chores, telling our stories to each other; that was deeply spiritually rewarding.

        As life would have it, I now am a community organizer here in Brown County, in addition to teaching and performing my music part-time. One of our grassroots priority issues now is building a homeless shelter here in Brown County, Ohio. Sometimes we blindly stumble into the arms of grace...

Copyright for the Homeless Grapevine Issue 32 February 1999

 

Homeless Grapevine Vendor Speaks Out

by Dinah Blake

        Homeless Grapevine vendor Marguerite Perdue has a message for Cleveland. She wants you to know that there is an urgent need to increase the housing options specifically for single women who are struggling to make the transition from homelessness to self-sufficiency.

        Growing up in Cleveland, Marguerite had "a pretty good child life." She was adopted into a loving family when she was five months old, and has younger brother. Marguerite went to area schools, and then to a community college for three years, and became a Certified Nurses Assistant and a Home Health Aide. She has two grown sons and a grandson. Although, her father was killed in an accident at the PepsiCola Bottling Company when she was eight, Marguerite is proud that her family was never on welfare. She has never lived in low-income housing, has always had her own house, own apartment, own car.

        About ten years ago, Marguerite lost her Nurses Assistant license, and began attending school and working at factory jobs through some of the area temporary employment agencies, while waiting to become eligible for re-certification in 2000. She was self-sufficient, living at the Jay Hotel where she was renting her own room. She obtained the room with the help of a social worker at the Salvation Army and either emergency assistance or a CEOGC voucher.

        And then everything fell apart.

        Marguerite became homeless about a year and a half ago. On a day that her rent was due, she called the landlord to let him know that she was at work and that she would pay him at the end of the day when she got home from work. But when she arrived back at the hotel, she found a lock placed on her door. Paying $35 rent for the day (because the room could have been rented that day), a $15 fee for packing up her possessions, and a $1.50/day storage fee was more than she could manage, so she left and the landlord kept her possessions. "I don't understand how [the landlord] took all my stuff like that. The Jay is really not a bad place. It's the best place there is, but I had just got everything together. He knew I was working."

        Marguerite moved back in with her mother until her mother got sick and was unable to walk, which made it necessary to let a cousin buy the family's house. Marguerite's mother went into a nursing home, her brother moved to Detroit, and Marguerite moved to Akron, where she stayed at the Haven of Rest Center shelter. She was able to make arrangements to move into an apartment for single women next door to the Haven of Rest, but shortly before she was to move in, her mother went into respiratory failure. Marguerite immediately came back to Cleveland to be with her mother. "Since my cousin got the house, ever since I came back here from Akron, I've been homeless. I mean, I called all the shelters. There's nothing for a single woman. No where, nothing, ever. No rooms. No nothing, and that's basically the way it is."

        Marguerite has explored most of the housing options available to her. She has been to three Ohio counties in order to get shelter, but now it is imperative for Marguerite to stay in Cleveland; she needs to be near her mother at the nursing home. Marguerite feels she needs to live close enough to the nursing home to stop in every day. She is afraid that she won't be contacted immediately if her mother passes.

        Because she committed a felony some years ago, CMHA housing is not an option. An outreach worker found Marguerite a room at a three-quarter-way house run by the Community Re-entry program (prison reform) but, although the rent was only $125/month, she didn't feel that it was appropriate for her to have to follow the mandatory regulations and programs designed for the rest of the residents who were recently released from prison, on parole or on probation.

        Marguerite also tried getting a room at a hotel on Detroit and West 65th street. She went to the hotel one Thursday with $85 for rent in hand only to learn that the weekly rental cycle went from Saturday to Saturday, and she would have to pay $35/day for the two extra days. After having walked all the way carrying all her bags she was discouraged and left, realizing too late that she could have paid for the week and then spent Thursday and Friday nights in the womens' overflow shelter. It is difficult to get into the hotel, and having the money at the right time is hard for Marguerite.

        Finding trustworthy roommates to share housing expenses in rented situations has been difficult, also. Twice Marguerite has lost apartments because roommates didn't work out and the expense was more than Marguerite could manage on her own.

        Last summer, Marguerite went through a 30-day program for drug rehabilitation at the Hitchcock Center for Women. A week before coming out, Marguerite was promised housing at Transitional Housing, Inc., but two days before she was released, she was told there was no space available. She made an arrangement to room with another woman who had been in the treatment program with her, but that didn't work out either.

        At that point, Marguerite began staying at Project HEAT site C, the women's emergency shelter at the First Methodist Church, (East 30th at Euclid). When she has the money, she also has paid a couple of friends $10 or $15 dollars to sleep at their places for a night.

        Marguerite believes that if she had dependent children, finding housing would be possible. "Women with children, they've got it made," she says. "But I'm not going to have kids just to get someplace to live." She also observes that too many people are no longer able to cope with societal pressures. "Half the population is taking psych meds because they can't cope with life. You just have to cope. That's all." Marguerite refuses to let that happen to her, even though she admits that she has considered giving up and signing herself into a psych ward just to have a place to live and convenient meals.

        Lately, Marguerite has been selling the Homeless Grapevine, and working for $6.50/hr as a machine operator at a factory in Strongsville-a job that she got through Minute Man Temp Service. Work there has been slow, however, because of the holidays and the recent bout of inclement weather. Although her training is for the health care industry, Marguerite can do any kind of factory work. She can drive a tow motor and weld, or do any kind of assembly work. But what she likes to do is the nursing. "Without a permanent residence," she points out, "how can you find a permanent position? I can get a job, but I need a place where I can take a shower. You can't, being homeless, deal with all that and be expected to get up and go to work everyday."

        Marguerite hopes to find her way out of this Catch-22 by landing a live-in position as a home health aide. She came close recently, but lost the opportunity because she didn't have enough money for the required uniforms, shoes and a stethoscope.

        "If I could just find a room for myself-an efficiency-I do not make enough money. Mostly, the landlords want first month's rent and a deposit. I can't come up with that. I have to eat every day to survive. Wash my clothes. There's no way I could do it."

        "They should open up something, a rooming house for women just like they do for men, you know what I mean? Because it's really hard. A single woman can't get a place to live." Marguerite would like to see someone open up a house, rooming house or boarding house for women. Even a three-quarter way house like the Community Re-entry ones would be of help, but one without the mandatory rules and restrictions that are necessary for the residents in those situations who are making the transition from prison to life in the community.

        "The housing-that's the main thing," Marguerite insists. "Somebody needs to-not needs to, but it would be appreciated if somebody could try to come up with some kind of solution that would help single women. The single men have everything. They've got VOA, they've got St. Herman's... there is no place that is suitable for single females."

Copyright for the Homeless Grapevine Issue 32 February 1999

 

Commentary: America Not Treating Homeless People with Dignity

Commentary by Brian Davis

        The outrageous quote of 1998 was from Sandy Berger from June of 1998 as reported by the Associated Press when President Clinton was in Beijing to meet with Chinese officials. If you remember, Chinese officials arrested several political dissidents right before Clinton arrived. Berger was asked to comment on these arrests. He said, "The Chinese security apparatus (is) doing what comes naturally to them. People are not debris to be swept up for a visitor, and we have expressed our concern about this to the Chinese government.

        Hey, Mr. Berger, how about expressing concern to your own government for treating homeless people like debris? Remember the Atlanta Olympics? The city of Atlanta had to settle with the homeless people who they swept away to "clean up" the city. Look at San Francisco, Chicago, Miami, and Cleveland that have engaged in homeless sweeps to remove the "human debris" in order to make the city more tourist friendly. And those cities were not even expecting a visit from the most powerful man in the world.

        Pathetic campaigns I: Mayor White ran on the platform that he has created over 1,000 new housing units in Cleveland. At the same time he said that he boarded up 1,000 houses because of this new drug house seizure policy. This seems like a wash to me. Build 1,000 expensive homes and close 1,000 houses that a low income person could live in.

        Pathetic campaign II: Governor Voinovich in his Senate campaign (and actually many governors) ran on the platform that they have cut the welfare roles by some sizable figure. Is this something that we should rejoice over? If these former recipients were better off or had graduated into some stable life this would be great. Cutting children into oblivion and future homelessness is not something to cheer about. Next up: Please re-elect me because I built more prisons; I added two new electric chairs so we can have simultaneous executions; I closed all the public hospitals (too expensive); I privatized all the public schools. I am a leader?

        Why do the simplest solutions always elude us? Instead of forcing women into the workforce where they will most likely make a very low income, and be forced to have another very low income woman take care of their children. Why not cut out the middle man, and pay women to take care of their own children.? You then give them a bonus if they are raising a child that is healthy and attending school. This would not be a lavish life, but it would be better than then the non-union, stress filled, burger flipping, degrading, I hate my life world that currently exists.

        Are sports and in-depth weather really news? Why is every local news exactly alike? When are they going to realize that once people get comfortable with two smiling faces they are not going to change to two other smiling faces. I think that it would be a big ratings boost for the third and fourth place television news programs to do something completely different.

        Here is my suggestion: No smiles, no sports, no stupid banter, no interruptions, only one sentence on the weather for the next day, and only serious, real, local, news. Lead with what is coming up on the news then take an extended commercial break. Then tell what the weather will be the next day. (No more than one sentence, dammit.) We all know what the weather was today because we lived it. No sports because all those other stations do a better job with it. Advertise it as news for smart people. That would force the entire suburbs of Cleveland Hts, Shaker Hts, and Lakewood to watch the program. Everyone who lives in these inner ring suburb things that they are smarter than everyone else in the area.

        Just go straight through the news, no commercials. Put in one look at the artistic community or a poem (again, to get those snobby suburbs.) Sprinkle in some kind of point counter point debate and finish up with some news by representatives of certain neighborhoods. (Wouldn't it be great to hear about what is really going on in Hough from a reporter like Fannie Lewis?) Oh yeah, do one news story a night in Spanish, Russian, Slovak, or Arabic. Repeat the weather at the end and finish with extended commercials. This way people (not from Lakewood, Cleveland Hts, and Shaker) could turn it if they just had to see some sports. I guarantee that if they adopted my ideas they would win their time slot with in six months.

        We are afraid of the wrong people. There is this inherent fear of homeless people which I contend is misplaced. Look at the Site A overflow shelter. Undoubtedly, one of the worst places to live in the city. There are dirty mats stacked on top of each other on a concrete floor. It is always overcrowded and there is no telling what kind of performance enhancing drug your neighbor is on. The conditions are worse than the jail, and people freely go there out of the cold every night. And yet no one has ever died or been seriously hurt inside. Imagine if we locked some of these egotistical business types in a small room for the night and they had to sleep on the floor within an inch of their neighbor with only one bathroom. By morning, there would be a number of vacancies on Cleveland Tomorrow's Board.

        I would never advocate that someone break the law, but there is this guy Robert Teir of this Brown shirt type organization called the Center for Livable Cities who travels around the country to suggest ideas on how communities can put in place "street order maintenance" and forward "urban quality issues." Basically, he tells cities how to craft constitutional regulations to prohibit panhandling, ban sitting on the sidewalks, ban camping in parks, or make it illegal to empty trash cans. If there was justice in the world, Teir should be arrested for "Inciting Unnecessary Fear in the Community" and sentenced to spend one year on the streets. Then he could see how it is if he had no family or friends to rely on and no place to go out of the elements. It would be easier to comment on the livability of a city if you have had to walk the city in the rain for eight hours and not be able to sit on the PUBLIC sidewalk.

        Postscript: This Center for Livable Cities organization is a non-profit organization so they do not pay any taxes to these cities that they are trying to make more livable. How about paying your entrance fee in taxes to the school system and road repair before you start commenting on the quality of the city?

        The President of the Homeless: I love the exaggerated sense that many homeless people have of themselves. I think that shows the true spirit of mankind. In the face of losing everything including a place to stay some develop this sense of fame in the community. Big fish in a small pond mentality.

I talked to a guy on the phone who was homeless and he told me to meet him at night by the food truck and he gave me his street name-Kilroy. I said, "How am I going to recognize you?" He said, "Just ask for me. Everyone knows me." So I went down to the food truck that night at the time that we agreed to meet, and I must have asked 60 people, "Have you seen Kilroy?" Not one guy knew who I was talking about. Kilroy kept his dignity by thinking that he was at least famous in the homeless community, which is all right. I like that.

        Come out, come out where ever you are and meet the young lady who fell from a star. The U.S. Census is again planning a one day count of all homeless people in the country. In 1990, they came up with pathetically small numbers of homeless people that most cities and government offices refused to use the figures. In Cleveland, they did not even count the people in every shelter. This is the one time that most city officials want to interact with homeless people so that their population does not continue to decline. They better rise up and fight this proposal or we will once again discover that our city's have a paper solution to the homeless problem. Don't count our friends and they don't exist.

        Police Chief Flask, please arrest the Biggest Aggressive Pan Handler in the City: Civic Vision 2000. "Hey buddy, can you spare an Aquarium?" Sorry, I am fresh out. I haven't even paid for the stadiums yet. "Come on, how about a luxury hotel?" No, get away from me. "All right, if you don't give me Convention Center I am going to follow you the rest of the day." Fine, here you go, just don't bother me. I just came downtown to look at the lights.

Copyright for the Homeless Grapevine Issue 32 February 1999

Profile of Dave Westcott

Age:        72

Home:        Wescott is a current resident of Cleveland's West Side. However, he was born in Selma Alabama and previously lived in Wisconsin & St. Louis.

        There are many people who find comfort in helping others, and others dedicate their life to seeing a better future for poor people. Dave Westcott retired from the publishing business and began working on social justice issues in Cleveland. He has volunteered with the Universal Healthcare Network, the American Civil Liberties Union, Lutheran Campus Ministry, Jobs with Justice and the Northeast Ohio Coalition for the Homeless. Dave has also volunteered with the Lutheran Campus Ministry, Brookside emergency food center, the Homeless Grapevine, and has assisted with the fight against the death penalty in Ohio.

He has a great concern for the poor in the United States, and volunteers to strengthen organizations that are working to improve the lives of those who live below the poverty level in Cleveland. He chooses to assist organizations that are working on social justice issues from universal health care to a living wage as well as civil rights for poor people. Some days he may be filing papers or sending out mailings or making telephone calls, but all to assist local organizations that are working on solutions to poverty.

Dave learned about NEOCH and the Homeless Grapevine through his involvement in West Side Ecumenical Ministry. "After retiring I began to look for places I could volunteer that would provide some justice for those people with out it or who are denied their rights. NEOCH is one of those places," Dave said.

When asked why he finds time to assist all of these groups, Dave said, "I like advocacy, assuring people get basic rights that many of us take for granted."

One of his more memorable experiences in working with the Grapevine. Dave remembered a homeless person came in one day and needed to sign the new Grapevine contract. He didn't understand some of the rules or why they were enacted. He seemed a bit paranoid. "I realized the simple logic that we take for granted and that so many people on the streets have trouble with. I was very impressed with how NEOCH took the time and patience to explain and re-explain the contract to him. I would have gotten very frustrated."

Dave enjoys seeing things change and happen simply because someone stood up for what was right and realizing that places like the Coalition for the Homeless are willing to stand up beside those with no voice to get equal treatment under the law and in society in general.

Westcott lamented that there is even a need for organizations like the Homeless Grapevine and the Coalition for the Homeless. "That I have to come to a place like NEOCH to see this kind of effort. I am sad that this effort is not being taken on within our churches and community groups more," Dave said.

Copyright for the Homeless Grapevine Issue 32 February 1999

 

Are We Better Off After Welfare?

by Donald Whitehead

        On December 8 the Greater Cincinnati Coalition for the Homeless along with the Welfare Rights Coalition held a joint press conference to publicize "Working Hard Earning Less".

        The report was a joint venture between Jobs with Justice and The National Priorities Project. The report focused on the lack of livable wage jobs being produced in the United States.

        The press conference used information pertaining to Ohio specifically. In Ohio 79% of new jobs pay less than half the livable wage. Welfare recipients who must find jobs are especially impacted. Studies by both the National Governor's Association and the Census Bureau find that most jobs held by former recipients pay between $5.50 and $7.00 an hour averaging $11,410 and $14,560 a year. Only 28.8% earn above the $14,500 poverty level for a family of three.

        Studies have also found that 40% of those in homeless shelters work everyday. The panel also included a homeless man who works full-time and is still not able to find housing.

        According to a study by the National Coalition for the Homeless in 1997 titled Unabated and Increasing the cost for a one bedroom apartment is $7.63 an hour and the cost of a two bedroom is $9.37 an hour on average. Many cities across the country have started successful living wage campaigns. It was the hope of organizers of the press conference that there would be renewed interest in a livable wage campaign indexed to the cost of housing in Cincinnati.

Copyright February 1999 by the Northeast Ohio Coalition for the Homeless and the Homeless Grapevine, Cleveland, Ohio.


 

Anti-Camping Ordinance Challenged in Court

by Bridget Reilly

        "As enforced in the City of Eugene, the 'camping' ordinance targets only the poor and the homeless, in violation of the equal protection clauses of the US and the Oregon Constitutions.

        "As enforced in Eugene, E.C. Section 4,815 (the 'camping' ban) targets only those unable to afford permanent conventional housing. The sunbather, the vehicle of a friend or relative parked on a public street, adjacent to the host's home and used for living, etc. is not charged and has not been charged in the history of the ordinance's enforcement in Eugene."

        The above is an excerpt from the brief written by attorney Brian Michaels, in his attempt to get my camping citation of a year ago dismissed. The attempt was successful in my case, but the issue remains.

        As I pointed out in Part One of this series, today's anti-camping laws are only a modern-day version of yesteryear's vagrancy laws, which have been struck down by the courts as unconstitutional because they clearly targeted only the poor for enforcement. Here is a telling quote on that subject by Karl Sorg, from a letter he wrote me dated September 9:

        "J. D. Rockefeller used to boast that he wandered around the streets of Williamsburg, Virginia without a penny in his pockets, back in the days when Virginia enforced its 'vagrancy' laws against poor folks. The vagrants' only crime was having no money on their persons while in a public place. The same set of facts apparently didn't apply to J. D. Rockefeller. But he was a well-to-do capitalist. Therein lies the difference."

        All through Danielle Smith's final appeal (see Part One), Judge Henry repeatedly pointed out that the wording of Eugene's anti-camping ordinance doesn't betray any intent to discriminate against a particular class such as the homeless. The courts nowadays are at great pains to make a pretense of neutrality in these matters, as if a law against camping would be equally applied against rich homeowners as against poor homeless people.

        This is, of course, because the lawmakers had learned the lesson from the overturning of the vagrancy laws, that a law is unconstitutional if it obviously targets a certain group of people. So the key, of course, was to make it less obvious. That is why today's anti-camping statutes avoid using such loaded words as "vagrant" or "homeless," which would show the intent to discriminate. Instead, the Eugene ordinance uses the neutral term "person," and otherwise focuses heavily on the act of camping, and describes the paraphernalia typically found in a campsite that would show the "intent" to camp.

        Karl Sorg, a retired attorney who has long been an advocate of poor people's rights, had suspected for years that Eugene's camping ban was not enforced against people who live in expensive motorhomes, but only targets the beat-up old "hippie rigs" like mine. He mentioned to me, in a conversation back in April 1995, that he was looking for some hard evidence of this that could be used in court. I told him of one vehicle I had seen; the description is as follows:

        In about January of that year I happened to walk past a large, expensive-looking mobile home parked on a residential street in Eugene. It had a fancy placard bearing the names of its inhabitants, Mr. and Mrs. So-and-So. I also noted that by the door of the expensive-looking house it was parked in front of was another fancy placard bearing the names of its inhabitants, and the last name was the same as the one on the camper. So one would assume they were relatives.

        And the most damning piece of evidence was a thick orange cord stretched very conspicuously across the sidewalk (so that I had to step over it), and attached at one end to the RV and the other to the house. (The motorhome was parked on the street because it was clearly too long to fit in the driveway.) This meant that they were violating not only the state zoning law which prohibits such electrical hookups on private property, but also the city ordinance against camping on a public street! Yet these people didn't seem the least bit fearful of being prosecuted for either crime, as the camper and its connection to the adjacent house (both the physical connection of the power line and the blood connection implied by the names on the two placards) were being so flagrantly and proudly displayed.

        Karl also requested statistics of the number of people who had been cited under Eugene's anti-camping ordinance, and the home address of each such person. In Karl's words, "I am convinced that the requested statistics would show not one single, solitary case of a 'good' person with a home address being cited for violation of the ban." In this way he hoped to prove that only the homeless and poor are cited, and that the law is therefore discriminatory and unconstitutional (at least as it is enforced in Eugene).

        But when the request was make for these statistics, the court demanded the payment of a $3,000 fee before it would comply! This was ostensibly because the prosecutor had taken the liberty of reducing Danielle's "offense" from a "misdemeanor" to a mere "violation," as is done with all camping cases in Eugene. This procedure requires a bit of explaining:

        When a cop cites someone for "prohibited camping," s/he is actually charging them with a misdemeanor, as the "crime" was originally defined when the law was passed (though s/he probably won't say so.) This has the psychological effect of terrorizing the homeless person, as a misdemeanor carries a possible sentence of jail and/or a large fine. But when the person shows up in court, s/he finds that the "offense" had been re-defined as a "violation." This is supposed to have a psychologically relieving effect, as a "mere" violation carries no more weight of severity than a parking ticket, punishable only by a supposedly nominal fine and no jail sentence.

        But this psychology is deceptive, because in reality the defendant is being stripped of her/his due process rights (and the court is saving itself money). Being cited for a misdemeanor legally entitles one to several things:

1) To be read one's Miranda rights by the cop before being questioned.

2) A court-appointed attorney.

3) To be tried by a jury of one's peers.

4) A standard of proof beyond a reasonable doubt rather than a mere "Preponderance of the evidence."

Now, when I received my camping citation, the cop's notes indicated that he was citing me for a "misdemeanor," despite the fact that he hadn't read me my rights. The ticket also indicated a "mandatory" court appearance (consistent with its definition as a misdemeanor, as opposed to an "optional" court appearance which applies to mere violations such as parking tickets.)

        So, when I made my "mandatory" court appearance, I found that my "offense" had been predictably reduced to a "violation." This meant that I couldn't get a court-appointed attorney or a jury trial, yet my next court date was still mandatory, and I was also expected to pay the $90 bail to ensure that I would show up.

        They had played this same type of game in Danielle's case, with the added twist I already mentioned: besides not giving her a court-appointed lawyer, they also refused to provide (in lieu of the $3,000 fee) the statistics that would have shown the discriminatory pattern in the law's enforcement.

        And on top of they, Judge Henry had the balls to write at the conclusion of her case: " There is no evidence in this record that leads the Court to conclude that police policy or practice targets the homeless for enforcement or otherwise is intended to discriminate against the homeless...The Court is unable and unwilling to deduce any discriminatory purpose...based solely on the photographic and testimonial evidence received in this case."

        And all of these sleight-of-hand tactics were of course designed to obscure the court's real purpose, which was to frustrate all attempts to prove the unconstitutionality of the camping ban. So there the ordinance sits, still in the law books.

Bridget Reilly lives in Eugene and has published a paper called the Houseless Journal.

 

Copyright for the Homeless Grapevine Issue 32 February 1999